Functional Assessment

See also:    Behavior    Positive Behavioral Support   

Internet Resources

One of the components of a functional behavior analysis (FBA) or any systematic study of behavior is to note what happened prior to the event, what the behavior looked liked, and what happened after the behavior.
Leslie Packer
This is the first in a series of working papers on developing and implementing functional behavioral assessments and behavior intervention plans. It is intended to be used by school personnel who participate in a student's IEP meetings.
Mary Magee Quinn, Robert Gable, Robert Rutherford, Jr., Michael Nelson, Kenneth Howell
Rationale for Using Functional Assessments (FA) to Develop Positive Behavior Interventions; FA is a Team Effort; A Method for Conducting a FA; Direct and Indirect Measures of Student Behavior; The Behavioral Intervention Plan
Mary Magee Quinn, Robert Gable, Robert Rutherford, Jr., Michael Nelson, Kenneth Howell
Rationale for Developing Positive Behavioral Interventions; Overview of Functional Behavioral Assessment; Addressing Student Problem Behavior is a Team Effort; A Method for Developing, Implementing and Monitoring a Positive Behavioral Intervention Plan
Mary Magee Quinn, Robert A. Gable, Robert B. Rutherford, Jr., C. Michael Nelson, Kenneth W. Howell
If done correctly, the net result of behavioral assessments is that school personnel are better able to provide an educational environment that addresses the learning needs of all students.
Mary Magee Quinn, Robert Gable, Robert Rutherford, Jr., Michael Nelson, Kenneth Howell
This is the first in a series of working papers on developing and implementing functional behavioral assessments and behavior intervention plans. It is intended to be used by school personnel who participate in a student's IEP meetings.
Examines the rationale for and discusses the process of conducting a functional behavioral assessment.
Discusses how to use the information gathered during the functional behavioral assessment process to develop and implement positive behavioral intervention plans that address both the short- and long-term needs of the student.
A critical assessment of most behaviors presented in the clinic is likely to show that they are related to the underlying disability and have, in many cases, a communicative intent.
Mike P. Kerr
Behavioural research has shown that many human behaviours, including challenging behaviour, can be explained by a careful analysis of events occurring both before and after the behaviour.
Gerald Groden
Although the paperwork that accompanies this process places additional stress on the system, such planning does represent a tangible way to ensure that a free and appropriate education is provided.
Glenn Buck et al
A concurrent-operantsdesign was used to analyze the repetitive behavior of observing reflective surfaces while simultaneously engaging in erratic gross-motor body movements (EBMs) exhibited by a young boy diagnosed with autism. The assessment involved an evaluation of preference for controlled (i. e., the participant controlled the visual activity on a TV screen) versus uncontrolled (i. e., the participant viewed a previously recorded tape from the controlled condition) TV footage of his EBMs. The analysis indicated that both observing and EBMs were maintained by the direct correspondence between the body movements and the visual stimulation they produced when controlled by the participant. Thus, the EBMs appeared to be maintained on a conjugate schedule of reinforcement.
John T. Rapp et al
These results suggested that the analogue functional analysis described by Iwata et al. may be useful in identifying the environmental events that playa role in feeding disorders
Cathleen Piazza, Wayne Fisher, Kimberly Brown, Bridget Shore, Meta R. Patel, Richard Katz, Bart Sevin, Charles Gulotta, Audrey Blakely-Smith
In light of the widespread use of pretreatment functional analyses in articles published in this and other journals, we reviewed the literature in an attempt to identify best practices and directions for future research.
Gregory Hanley, Brian Iwata, Brandon McCord
This study describes procedures and outcomes in a functional analysis of problem behavior of 2 public school students. For a 13-year-old honors student, bizarre tacts (labeled as psychotic speech by school staff) were maintained by attention. For a 15-year-old with autism, the functional analysis revealed that perseverative mands for toileting were controlled by attention; mands for edible items were controlled by access to any food item; and mands for nonedible items were maintained by access to the specific item manded. The ''problematic'' aspects of the verbal behavior differed—the bizarre speech was problematic based on its content, but the perseverative verbalizations resulted in high response cost for classroom staff.
Christopher B. Ewing, Sandy K. Magee, Janet Ellis
Results of a descriptive analysis were inconclusive but revealed a correlation between ear covering and another child's screaming. An analogue functional analysis showed that ear covering was emitted only when the screaming was present.
Jung Chang Tang et al
We investigated the treatment utility of functional assessment within a behavioral consultation framework to determine the effect of different uses of assessment data on child treatment outcome.
Melissa Twernbold Schill
Used to take the observation of challenging, inappropriate, or ineffective behaviors a step further and begin to assess the function that the behavior serves for the child.
These findings clearly indicate that functional behavioral assessment and intervention should be employed for all children who display challenging behaviors that interfere with learning, the development of positive social relationships, or that may harm the child or other individuals.
Lynette K. Chandler, Toni Van Laarhoven
The focus when conducting a functional behavioral assessment is on identifying significant, pupil-specific social, affective, cognitive, and/or environmental factors associated with the occurrence (and non-occurrence) of specific behaviors.
A functional model of problem behavior can aid educators in identifying why students might be misbehaving and help design positive support plans.
The recent amendments to IDEA are final. School districts are now required to conduct functional behavioral analyses of problem behaviors, under certain circumstances.
Stephen Starin,
Any use of a manual restraint procedure is potentially dangerous. Potential risk factors associated with the use of restraint include obesity, the use of medications, and agitation.
Wayne County Regional Educational Service Agency
These results suggest that the current procedures represent a promising alternative method for reducing risk during functional analysis of problem behaviors.
Richard Smith, Robert Churchill
Once maintaining variables for problem behavior are identified, experimenters tend to choose reinforcement-based procedures rather than punishment-based procedures as treatment for both SIB and aggressive behavior.
Lillian Pelios, Jaqueline Morren, David Tesch, Saul Axelrod.
Through information gained by a functional analysis of each behavior, treatment plans were designed to provide the participants with less dangerous, more acceptable means of achieving their intended goals.
Marcia Datlow Smith
Free service to psychologists, teachers, parents and others devoted to positive, nonaversive responses to problem behavior.
V. Mark Durand, Daniel Crimmins
Results of the modified social attention condition indicated that a specific quality of attention was needed to identify the maintaining contingency for destructive behavior within an experimental analysis.
David M. Richman, Louis P. Hagopian
In short, FBA is a problem-solving framework that leads to the design of interventions that have a high likelihood of success. Teams must develop the capacity to employ effective intervention design procedures in response to student problem behavior.
Timothy Knoster
The study supports existing recommendations for conducting systematic functional analyses to define variables maintaining undesirable behavior, and to teach functionally equivalent alternative responses as a strategy for decreasing undesirable behaviors.
Robert H. Horner, Jeffrey R. Sprague, Michelle O'Brien, Lora T. Heathfield
Those responsible for conducting assessments and providing behavioral support need to work with other human resources and be flexible in applying different strategies as necessary and appropriate to achieve the minimum desired outcomes.
Susan Johnston, Robert O'Neill
Self-injurious behavior and self-restraint were shown to be functionally independent and maintained by distinct consequences. The results are briefly discussed and suggestions for future research are provided.
John Rapp, Raymond Miltenberger
By training informants to attend, systematically, to setting event factors, we may be able to overcome some of the assessment difficulties associated with infrequent observation opportunities, stimulus complexity, and perceived strength of reinforcement
Scott Yarbrough et al
For children with autism who have difficulty communicating their needs due to impaired development in social interaction and communication, problem behaviors typically serve communicative functions.
Susan L. Hepburn
By carefully examining a person's behavior, one can make a reasonable deduction regarding the appropriate intervention. This strategy is much better than relying on 'trial and error.'
Stephen Edelson
Teachers are in need of effective and efficient strategies to address (challenging behaviors). Sell-management is an effective tool in managing classroom behavior and requires a small investment in teacher time.
Amy Brooks, Anne W. Todd, Sheri Tofflemoyer, Robert H. Horner
This article examines some of the impediments to effective dissemination of training in PBS such as philosophical barriers, school discipline policies, and the inadequacy of present professional and staff training models.
Wayne Sailor, Rachel Freeman, Jody Britten, et al
An examination of these manuals yields encouraging evidence that the field of behavioral support has made notable progress in adopting a functional (behavior-analytic) approach to unwanted behaviors.
Glen Dunlap, Donald Kincaid

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