Articles on Asperger Syndrome

Internet Resources

The naturalization of formal mass schooling in our society means that parents, teachers and other professionals rarely examine, or even recognise, the ideology that underlies the everyday practices within schools.
Gayle Dallaston
Because Asperger's was not widely identified until recently, thousands of adults like Mr. Miller -- people who have never fit in socially --are only now stumbling across a neurological explanation for their lifelong struggles with ordinary human contact.
Amy Harmon
Parents need to get comfortable doing their own research. They are already experts on their own child so once armed with knowledge of AS, they can begin leading the way in getting their child help.
Lise Pyles
Since AS itself shows a range or spectrum of symptom severity, many less impaired children who might meet criteria for that diagnosis receive no diagnosis at all and are viewed as unusual or just different, or are misdiagnosed.
Stephen Bauer
Traits include awkwardness in social situations, an intense preoccupation with certain specific (often unusual) topics, self-directed orientation, a lack of understanding of social cues, and clumsiness caused by lack of motor coordination.
Bad behaviour often stems from an inability to communicate their frustrations and anxieties. They need love, tenderness, care, patience and understanding. Within this framework they seem to flourish.
Rosalyn Lord
General Information
ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education
What distinguishes Asperger's Disorder from autism is the severity of the symptoms and the absence of language delays. Children with Asperger's Disorder may be only mildly affected and frequently have good language and cognitive skills.
Autism Society of America
People with AS display deficits in social interaction and unusual responses to the environment. Cognitive and communicative development are within the normal or near-normal range in the first years of life, and verbal skills are relatively strong.
Fred Volkmar, Ami Klin
The most distinguishing symptom of AS is a child's obsessive interest in a single object or topic to the exclusion of any other. Children with AS want to know everything about their topic of interest and their conversations with others will be about little else. Their expertise, high level of vocabulary, and formal speech patterns make them seem like little professors. Other characteristics of AS include repetitive routines or rituals; peculiarities in speech and language; socially and emotionally inappropriate behavior and the inability to interact successfully with peers; problems with non-verbal communication; and clumsy and uncoordinated motor movements.
National Institute of Neurological Disorders
Early intervention and treatment is the single most important effort a parent can make to influence the outcomes for a child or adolescent with Asperger.
National Alliance for the Mentally Ill
Students with AS are fascinating to assess and work with because they continue to teach us so much about the complexity of social cognition and its impact on social and life skills, and on academic and career development.
Michelle Garcia Winner
A preponderance of research published over the last year includes social communication, sensory characteristics, eye gaze, neurocognitive aspects, comorbidity, and treatment and intervention studies.
Jan Blacher, Bonnie Kraemer, Monica Schalow
An archive of postings containing very up-to-the minute information and discussion on autistic life.
I am an adolescent male who was diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome at the age of twelve, when I was enrolled in the seventh grade. Throughout grade school, junior high, and into high school, I could easily tell that I didn't quite fit in.
Many behaviors that seem odd or unusual are due to those neurological differences and not the result of intentional rudeness or bad behavior, and most certainly not the result of 'improper parenting.'
The article reviews the diagnosis and assessment of Asperger syndrome and its links with a wide range of psychiatric issues, including mental disorder, offending and mental capacity.
T.P. Berney, Advances in Psychiatric Treatment
The most important thing is to try to get to know him or her. Find out what their interests are and let them use them. Talk to them like you would talk to any of your other friends. You may have to be very patient. You may have to explain things.
Although it is likely that many children with AS can be managed primarily in the regular classroom setting, they often need some educational support services.
Stephen Bauer
AS is described, classification discussed and reasons are given for including AS, together with early childhood autism, in a wider group of conditions which have in common impairment of development of social interaction, communication and imagination.
Lorna Wing
Fred Volkmar, Ami Klin
A Powerpoint presentation I developed for my son's after school program. Consists of three parts : AS Education, Our Story, and Our Social Stories.
Janice Cohen
The unequivocal need of individuals with severe social disabilities for comprehensive, adequate educational services and other treatments is irrespective of the fact that the validity and utility of this specific diagnostic concept is far from resolved.
Ami Klin
What may look like laziness, disrespect or willful misconduct may actually be lack of understanding, anxiety, inability to take the perspective of others, or difficulty with communication.
Karen Phillips
The AS adolescent can feel trapped in a social world that is incomprehensible and yet unavoidable. Gradual improvements can be made as the teen slowly develops insights and improved reflective ability in social areas.
Richard Howlin
Do not take the diagnosis of Asperger Syndrome for granted - ask for the development of an appropriate program on the basis of your child's profile, his/her educational setting or living conditions, and realistic short-term and long-term goals.
Fred Volkmar, Ami Klin
I interviewed college student, Patrick, who contacted me after listening to a previous podcast on Residential programs for children with Asperger's. He wanted to provide an alternative perspective from what he calls "the commercial" that psychologists and school officials tend to offer.
Larry Welkowitz
It is more usual for parents to become concerned about their child's emerging unusual or odd behaviour and social development, but these tend to be identified later, usually from about three to four years of age.
Avril Brereton, Bruce Tonge
While most children with autism fail to develop language or have language delays, children with Asperger's Disorder are usually using words by the age of two, although their speech patterns may be somewhat odd.
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Autists have emotional responses as strong as, or perhaps stronger than, most neurotypicals, though what generates an emotional response might not always be the same.
Brain Encyclopedia
Asperger's disorder is a relatively uncommon form of PDD characterized by social impairment and circumscribed interests that interfere with everyday life. The most important difference between autistic disorder and Asperger's is the absence of language delay. However, the social impairment seen in Asperger's does extend into the realm of communication, as these children show deficits in reading nonverbal cues and fail to follow basic rules of conversation. Assessment of a child suspected of having a PDD such as Asperger's relies on data collection from multiple informants. Diagnostic precision can be enhanced through the use of structured interviews as well as parent and teacher rating scales. The first-line treatments include education for the child and family and remediation as needed in the school setting. Social skills training and specific behavioral interventions are also recommended. It should be noted, however, that these interventions have not been studied carefully in children with Asperger's disorder. The decision to use medication for the treatment of a child with Asperger's disorder is based on the identification of a target symptom and selection of an appropriate medication for that target symptom.
Lawrence D. Scahill
There is no direct link between Asperger's syndrome and criminal behaviour, research in Wales shows. Several recent media reports have suggested the syndrome as a cause of anti-social and threatening behaviour. But the study of over a million people in Wales found "very little data" to link the mild form of autism with criminal behaviour.
Hywel Griffith, BBC Wales
'If only the parent would be less over protective, the child would be fine.' is a very common statement made by either an unsympathetic teacher or a teacher who doesn't want to deal with the issues.
Barbe Fowler
A literature search at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.
Paul Pietsch
This web site is dedicated to all adults with Asperger's Syndrome and to those who love them and seek to understand more about our different abilities. While many things in life present many challenges the unique communication and relational challenges that adults with Asperger's Syndrome face will be examined here in articles, with the input of adults with Asperger's and hopefully also with the input of others who are in relationship with us Aspies.
Difference is always uncomfortable. We all like to be amongst that which is familiar, predictable and comfy. Imagine how uncomfortable it would be if you took words and people literally? You would so often feel let down, disappointed, lied to and so on.
Wendy Lawson
Retrieved from: Medline, PsycInfo, ERIC, Psychology and Behavioral Science Collection, ingenta, Wiley Interscience, ScienceDirect, Professional Development Collection
So, the question is what is normal about wanting to be well adjusted? What is the prize that you get at the end of the day for fitting in?
A.J. Mahari
Below is a list of Asperger's Syndrome characteristics. Most have been extracted from medical diagnostic criteria, descriptions offered by medical and counseling professionals, articles by educators and from employment biographies of approximately a dozen independent-living, medically or self-diagnosed AS adults over the age of 25. While every adult occasionally manifests these characteristics, what distinguishes adults with AS is their consistency of appearance, their intensity, and the sheer number of them appearing simultaneously. Some characteristics do not apply to everyone, so persons consulting this list should not feel compelled to find them all.
Roger Meyer
General information
Autism Association of the ACT
Asperger's syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder (not otherwise specified, PDD-NOS), and autism are neurological disorders within the autism spectrum, affecting social interactions, communication, imagination skills, and responses to sensory input.
Kathy Rand
Asperger Syndrome (AS) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction and motor coordination, and unusual or restricted patterns of interest or behavior.
Sally Bloch-Rosen
AS individuals encounter enormous difficulties during the transition into adolescence, and later into adult life, since they have not completed the requisite developmental tasks or moved beyond early stages in language, cognitive and social skills.
Michael McCroskery
"Let's not use the word 'cure' if you don't mind... When you talk about cure you imply that we're broken. I don't feel broken." So says Liane Holliday Willey, a woman who not so long ago would have been described as a "victim" of Asperger's Syndrome. It's been more than 60 years since the Austrian doctor Hans Asperger identified the condition that bears his name, but it has only been in the past decade or so that we have begun to understand its broader implications. Asperger's Syndrome may be a part of the autistic spectrum, but that doesn't necessarily mean that an "Aspie" can't function in the world.
The Infinite Mind, Lichtenstein Creative Media
It is far more helpful to view the overt manifestations/symptoms as expressions of the individual's inability to cope with having Asperger's syndrome and the associated stress, anger, frustration, boredom, confusion, anxiety and fear.
Amitta Shah
These children are rarely disruptive for the sake of it and are amenable to behaviour modification providing that clear and simple instructions are given and consequences are consistently applied if the inappropriate behaviour continues.
Susan Jackel
This mini-course covers the social implications of Asperger's Syndrome, as well as the emotional difficulties that frequently occur with this diagnosis. The impact on family life is addressed, along with suggestions for working with those with Asperger's.
Deborah Samet
Asperger Syndrome (AS) is a severe developmental disorder characterized by major difficulties in social interaction, and restricted and unusual patterns of interest and behavior.
Fred Volkmar, Ami Klin
It is much easier for aspies to get depressed than NTs, and look how many depressed NT kids there are. That depression is the cause of most of the inability to deal with life that so many aspies display.
Frank Klein
My point, I guess, is that there are so many of us out there, and we are so similar yet so different. Those close to me tease me frequently, saying that I see aspies everywhere, like gay people see gay people everywhere. I get the teasing, mildly sarcastic, "Of course, everyone's an aspie, I'm an aspie, you're an aspie, everyone's an aspie!" Are they? (Sly grin.)
The following questionnaire is designed to identify behaviours and abilities indicative of Asperger's Syndrome in children during their primary school years. This is the age at which the unusual pattern of behaviour and abilities is most conspicuous.
Tony Attwood
Transcript of broadcast Monday 5 April 1999
Charles Aussilloux
Children with autism have difficulty on relating to others in a meaningful way. Their ability to develop friendships is generally limited as is their capacity to understand other people's emotional expression.
This classificatory system has been designed to accommodate the needs of clinicians, researchers and administrators, but the terminology is confusing for parents, teachers etc.
Archiv fur Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten (1944), 117, ppp. 76-136
Hans Asperger
For him, living with Asperger's is a question of adapting, Tristan says. Even things like normal conversation - hi, how are you, how's life - can be nonsensical, like something in code, and body language can be a closed book. "It's very difficult, because I don't really understand what small talk is," Tristan says. "I just think it's gibberish a lot of the time. For me, and a lot of older people with Asperger's, if you realise, you notice other people and you just copy it, without understanding with it means."
Jonathan Ridnell, ABC Central Victoria
More mildly affected children and adults, some of whom are gifted, need to have the nature of their difficulties recognised as constitutionally determined, so that their symptoms are not erroneously attributed to faulty upbringing.
Sula Wolff
Geneva Centre
Because of the social-emotional and communication deficits, as well as the presence of symptomatology unique to Asperger's syndrome, these children can't know better until they are taught simply to know.
Diane Twachtman-Cullen
Of children who completed the study, 20 were diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome and 46 were diagnosed with autism at initial assessment. At outcome, children with Asperger's syndrome had higher socialisation scores than those with autism. Covariate analysis showed that differences in socialisation at follow up were explained by differences at initial assessment. The diagnostic distinction, however, remained predictive of socialisation after controlling for baseline differences in language and non-verbal IQ. Children with Asperger's syndrome had fewer total autistic symptoms at follow up than children with autism; these were explained by the group differences at initial assessment.
Peter Szatmari et al
It may be useful for children who need to understand a 'special' classmate who has AS or perhaps they themselves have been diagnosed with having the condition.
This site was created with the intention of educating and informing readers on ADHD and autistic spectrum conditions, including my own condition, Asperger Syndrome.
Rhonda Dray
Report of Dr. Daniel Rosenn's comments at a conference on neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood sponsored by Cambridge Hospital and Harvard Medical School.
Carl Sherman
Thus it's quite clear that the most widely accepted definition of AS is fundamentally broken. However, since people are quite obviously being diagnosed with DSM-IV 299.80 Asperger's disorder, it follows that the diagnosticians have created their own ad hoc definitions and interpretations of what AS is. This has also been confirmed by studies, as well as the fact that these home made definitions vary from person to person... It's the same group of people, getting different diagnoses depending on a number of arbitrary factors, mostly the parents' memories and the whims of the diagnostician.
If your child has just been diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome (AS), you have probably experienced a wide range of emotions: grief, anger, relief, denial, etc. However, the one overwhelming need for parents in this situation is information.
Carol Wilkerson
Clearly, the differentiation of Asperger disorder from other conditions is complex because of the many possibilities for misdiagnosis. The key to correct diagnosis is a precise early developmental history, with a systematic discussion of all the criteria.
Michael Fitzgerald, Aiden Corvin
Misdiagnosis, both in favour of Asperger syndrome and against, are common, due to other possibilities not being examined and ruled out.
The Asperger counseling network is for counselors and psychotherapists with an interest in working with people affected by Asperger syndrome.
General information, Banner Exchanges and Webrings, Books and videos, Conferences and Meetings, Material for Educators, Email lists and newsletters, Message boards and chat rooms, News and Magazine Articles, Personal Homepages
If Asperger's Syndrome was identified by observation of strengths and talents, it would no longer be in the DSM IV, nor would it be referred to as a syndrome.
Tony Attwood, Carol Gray
Our tentative conclusion is that high intelligence, combined with linguistic ability, may mask a deficit in Theory of Mind, though not in Social Affect
Neal Smith, Beate Hermelin et al.
Our paper provides an historical review of the origin and evolution of Asperger's syndrome, and our study attempts to investigate the validity of Asperger's disorder as defined by DSM-IV.
Susan Dickerson Mayes et al
They called me Dr. Stein because they considered the songtext to the track Dr. Stein by the German Heavy Metal-band HellOweeN provided a suitable description of my personality.
Frank Stenberg
I cite the link between skin sensitivity, metabolism and body electricities to show that comfort identities are scientifically serious and not frivolous. Comfort identities are minorities who make a unusual choices of costume.
Neil Gardner
In children with this pervasive developmental disorder language, curiosity, and cognitive development proceed normally while there is substantial delay in social interaction and "development of restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities."
Although Asperger syndrome shares some characteristics with higher-functioning autism, there are some unique features, and a different developmental progression and prognosis.
Saskatchewan Special Education Unit
In 1944, Asperger described a syndrome that was subsequently given his name, although there is evidence from earlier European literature that clinical descriptions matching this disorder were available in the 1920s. Asperger's work was largely ignored until the seminal article by Wing, however, which led to a resurgence of interest in this diagnostic concept. Asperger disorder (AD) was only introduced as a separate diagnostic category in the latest revisions of ICD-10 and DSM-IV. Epidemiologic research on this disorder has only started in recent years and therefore data are still scarce on the prevalence of this syndrome. This article reviews available epidemiologic surveys that have shed light on the prevalence of AD.
E. Fombonne, L. Tidmarsh
This paper describes a total population study of Asperger syndrome using a two-stage procedure. All school children in an outer Goteborg borough were screened.
Stephan Ehlers, Christopher Gillberg
Based on their comparison with autistic children, the authors concluded that four of the 10 might be better described as suffering from autism or Asperger's disorder than from pragmatic language impairment.
Mark Greener
There is evidence that Asperger syndrome is associated with delusional beliefs. Cognitive theories of delusions in psychosis literature propose a central role for impaired theory of mind ability in the development of delusions. The present study investigates the phenomenology of delusional ideation in Asperger syndrome. Fortysix individuals with Asperger syndrome participated and were found to have relatively high levels of delusional ideation, primarily grandiose or persecutory. Factors associated with delusional belief were anxiety, social anxiety and self-consciousness, but not theory of mind ability or autobiographical memory. The findings indicate that delusional belief is a prominent feature in Asperger syndrome, but do not support a mentalization based account. A preliminary cognitive model of delusions in Asperger syndrome is proposed and the theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.
Frances Abell, Dougal Julian Hare
Although autism was identified in 1943 by Leo Kanner, Rosenn said it took 50 years to realize autism is actually a spectrum disorder with different levels of severity and presentation. To explain the spectrum, Rosenn used a wedge diagram that showed a small amount of individuals with severe autism on the left side, with increasing numbers of individuals with moderate autism in the middle, and a large number of individuals with high-functioning autism known as Asperger's Syndrome on the right side. Asperger's was only officially classified as a psychiatric disorder about 10 years ago. Rosenn explained that for every individual with severe autism, there are 12 to 14 with Asperger's. "One in 250 kids has this condition and it is growing," said Rosenn.
Laura Nalesnik, Wellesley Townsman
A York County girl who suffers from Asperger's syndrome is entitled to special education services even though she completes her homework, behaves well in class and scores well on tests, a federal judge ruled. In his ruling, Hornby said the girl's parents demonstrated that the disability adversely affects her educational performance "and is thus eligible for special education under (federal law) due to her Asperger syndrome and her depressive disorder."
The Asperger's (AS) child may have a powerful predisposition to inertia especially when he is stressed or tired. This profound lack of energy or ability to initiate action is seen in the child's school, home, and social life.
George Lynn
Aaron has AS... Once he "discovers" something he immerses his life into it. At 8 years old he is an expert U.S. Presidents, Schoolhouse Rock and the solar system. He loves to read and play computer games most of which are about the planets.
Steve Lastra
Autism - and its milder cousin Asperger's syndrome - is surging among the children of Silicon Valley. Are math-and-tech genes to blame?
Steve Silberman
Currently, the research data suggest that select aspects of the temporal and frontal lobes, and portions of the amygdala, are key nodes in systems affected by autism.
Robert Schultz, Ami Klin
Hans Asperger had a special interest in "psychically abnormal" children. His paper, submitted to the journal in 1943, was based on investigations of more than 400 children with "autistic psychopathy" beyond his home district.
Who Named it
Parents, through their own interactions with their sons and daughters, may need to discretely model appropriate interactions so that relatives, neighbors, or friends can more easily understand what he or she needs to do.
Beverly Vicker
'If we are autists, you guys are heterists. The diagnostic features of heterists are making lots of eye contact and overlooking details such as small coins on patterned carpets or car number plates.'
Karen Gold, Guardian Unlimited UK
While the more overt symptoms of autism are typically more obvious in early childhood, the symptoms of AS may only become apparent with the increasing functional and social demands of adolescence. In the adolescent with AS, the stress of unrecognized disability, limited achievement, and a sense of failure are often revealed by increasing contrast with siblings and peers. Family and peers may become exasperated by the person's self-centered insensitivity, obsessiveness, and rigid inflexibility, further distorting personal relationships. All these factors can add secondary disability and result in dependency that is disproportionate to the person's intellectual ability.
Mary Muscari, Medscape
I think the main advances have come not from the research literature but from conversations and discussions with those who have Asperger's syndrome, by reading not the scientific textbooks but their autobiographies. My greatest knowledge of Asperger's has come from those who have it. Other great advances are the recognition of the challenges they face, and some way of helping them to cope. What may also be occurring is a change in attitude towards these attitudes and, I hope, a greater emphasis on their talents rather than their deficits.
Adam Feinstein
The inaugural lecture by Dr Sacks as he opened the Centre for the Mind in Canberra.
Oliver Sacks
As more diagnosticians started to identify these kids, it became apparent to me that Asperger syndrome is an intact population and that it is a diagnostic group independent of any other group that falls on the spectrum of autism.
Richard Simpson
Autism can involve delays in cognition, language, behavior, communication, and social interaction. As autism is a spectrum disorder, professionals may use words like these to explain where on a continuum they believe an individual's abilities may lie.
Autism Society of America
Basic Summary for Asperger syndrome; prognosis; symptoms; complications; misdiagnosis; treatments; statistics; hospital Statistics; articles; glossary.
Wrong Diagnosis
The term 'difference' in relation to AS is a more neutral, value-free, and fairer description, and that the term 'disability' better applies to the lower functioning cases of autism.
Simon Baron-Cohen
We are not labels or genetic aberrations, but people. We should view the rise in so-called behavioural disorders as a symptom of a greater malaise. We are not the problem, it's society's attitude to neurological deviants.
Neil Gardner
Federal law requires a continuum of options for educating students with disabilities. Parents of students with autism have fought hard and long to turn a mandate into a reality. However, are we still robbing the higher-functioning students with Asperger's Syndrome of just those same options?
Gretchen Mertz
In software engineering we meet people who fit into our mental category of 'nerd'. Or geek. Or anorak. Or whatever you like to call them. But can a person actually help being a nerd?
S.L. Hartwell
For years we have disparaged a group of people by referring to them as nerds. Our goal as clinicians should be to avert the tragedy of emotional pain, loneliness, and secondary psychiatric disorders that have gone unnoticed in the past.
Nicholas Putnam
There are suggestive similarities between the problems faced by our students and those of native speakers with Asperger's syndrome. The remedial strategies for Asperger's offer some insights for second-language learning and teaching... I suggest that second-language mindblindness afflicts many learners. The problem is not knowing what is in the mind of the other person, and not being able to negotiate a meeting of minds. It is as though one were playing tennis with an invisible opponent. You see the ball when it comes, but you have no way of knowing how the opponent feels or what he is trying to do. Learners can learn a great many of the words and patterns of a second language without having confidence to use the words in actual interpersonal situations.
Marshall R. Childs, The Daily Yomiuri
Many Asperger's kids, for example, can't tolerate any changes in routine: They want the same clothes every day, the same food at every meal, and pity the poor teacher who has to change the class schedule without notice.
Lisa Barrett, Washington Post
It is argued that the ability to abstract in general is not consistently lacking among those on the autistic spectrum, and a possible differential and contingent mechanism for abstraction, the 'literal detour,' is proposed.
Lars Perner
Long thread on a depression discussion list, including a mother whose son has AS
They talk like adults and often have sky-high I.Q.'s, but their social skills are nonexistent. Can kids with Asperger's syndrome, a recently diagnosed form of autism, harvest their strange talents in adulthood?
It has been said that the classic Autistic lives in a world of their own, whereas the Asperger's child lives in our world, but in his own way.
Floyd Tilton
Moreover, it is common for autistics and aspies to have some trouble lying, recognizing lies, and interpreting metaphors. The result is that most aspies are seen as literal and humorless.
When Gary Waleski learned he had Asperger's syndrome, he was relieved. "I don't look at autism as a disability. It's a way of being," he says. "It's like looking at the world sideways instead of up and down."
Natalie Miller
In both cases, the patient is self-centered and engrossed in a narrow range of interests and activities. Social and occupational interactions are severely hampered and conversational skills (the give and take of verbal intercourse) are primitive. The Asperger's patient body language - eye to eye gaze, body posture, facial expressions - is constricted and artificial, akin to the narcissist's. Nonverbal cues are virtually absent and their interpretation in others lacking. Yet, the gulf between Asperger's and pathological narcissism is vast.
Medical News Today
Asperger's Disorder is often misdiagnosed as Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), though evident as early as age 3 (while pathological narcissism cannot be safely diagnosed prior to early adolescence).
Sam Vaknin
If diagnosed and worked with early enough, individuals with Asperger Syndrome can develop the neurobiological workarounds and compensations that work not only for childhood, but into adulthood. To do that, we train our children to be good self-monitors.
Roger Meyer
Results showed that whereas normal 9-11 year old children were skilled at detecting faux pas, children with AS or HFA were impaired on this task. Some patients with AS or HFA were able to recognize faux pas but still produced them.
This page is part of a suite of pages on disorders along the autism spectrum.
The "disorder rush" has worried many. The response of Stephen Longworth, a GP in Leicester, England, is typical: "Could someone please tell me where shyness ends and 'social anxiety disorder' begins?" he wrote in the British Medical Journal. "Isn't this just another appalling example of the creeping (galloping?) medicalisation of everyday life? Would it be written about at all if suggested treatments didn't include expensive SSRIs?"
Rowan Hooper
Broadcast on National Public Radio, Wednesday, May 05, 2004
Terri Gross, Fred Volkmar
The Letter of Introduction featured on pages 369-374 in The Oasis Guide for Asperger Syndrome
Barbara Kirby
These results are consistent with the notion that impaired folk psychology and superior folk physics are part of the cognitive phenotype of autism, and suggest that a content-free theory of obsessions, in terms of executive dysfunction, is inadequate.
Simon Baron-Cohen, Sally Wheelwright
If there is one thing I have learned from having to deal with autism all these years, it is that my high level of functioning is never to be taken for granted; there are simply too many factors that can lower it in a hurry.
Daniel Hawthorne
Comparisons between high-functioning individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome can only produce meaningful conclusions if the two groups are appropriately matched for intellectual level.
Patricia Howlin
The present results, and these anecdotes, suggest that autism and AS may constitute a particular cognitive style, rather than an impairment... The style seems to involve deficits in mindreading in the presence of superior processing of local information.
Simon Baron-Cohen, Jessica Hammer
As I reflect on the journey of my life, it occurs to me that there are four important "pathways" or steps that have led my family to where we are today. The Pathway of Preparation occurred prior to my sons' diagnosis, as my husband and I were being prepared to parent a child with special needs. The Pathway to Diagnosis encompassed the numerous doctor and therapist evaluations, consultations with other professionals, and intense research that led to the diagnosis. The Pathway to Acceptance was a sort of grieving process, during which we and our extended family came to terms with the presence of an official diagnosis, re-defining our roles, and learning to accept the difficulties that our children face, even as we celebrate their abilities. The Pathway to Understanding was (and still is!) a time of gathering information and talking to others to learn as much as possible about Asperger's Syndrome. The Pathway to Progress has been, and continues to be, the means of helping our children to realize their full potential through a variety of activities, therapies, and perspectives. (And even parents can make progress!) Finally, I anticipate our Future Pathways, wondering and dreaming about my children's impact on the world around them, and ability to interact with it in various ways.
Laurel Hoekman
Physical symptoms may include early childhood motor delays, clumsiness, fine motor difficulty, gait anomalies, and odd movements.
James Robert Brasic
An enormous Powerpoint file containing a nice condensation of Attwood's presentation.
Tony Attwood
This report describes the 405 adolescents and adults with an autism spectrum disorder whose families are participating in this research.
Marsha Seltzer
Asperger's disease is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects social interaction, speech patterns and nonverbal communication.. Tells story of one family who worked with AS expert to help their child emphasize his strengths and advance his development.
Sally Ozonoff
Asperger's disease is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects social interaction, speech patterns and nonverbal communication.. Tells story of one family who worked with AS expert to help their child emphasize his strengths and advance his development.
Sally Ozonoff
Those suffering from subthreshold syndromes are sometimes slow to recognize these problems and fail to seek treatment.
Jane Brody
The present study examined 74 clinical case records of children with AP diagnosed by Hans Asperger and his team at the Viennese Children's Clinic and Asperger's private practice between 1950 and 1986. The characteristic features of the children are outlined, including reasons for referral, parental background, behavioural problems, cognitive functioning, communication and interests. Results show that the patients of Asperger described in our study represent a subgroup of children with very high intellectual functioning, specific circumscribed interests and talents but impaired social, communication and motor skills.
Kathrin Hippler, Christian Klicpera
Results show that the patients of Asperger described in our study represent a subgroup of children with very high intellectual functioning, specific circumscribed interests and talents but impaired social, communication and motor skills. Sixty-eight percent of the sample met ICD-10 criteria for AS, while 25% fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for autism.
Hippler, Klicpera
What unites each pupil is a fundamental difficulty in the understanding of other people (an inability to put themselves in the other persons shoes) and an inability to behave in a way that will make them make and keep friends easily.
I am not defective. I am different...
Lianne Holiday Willey
Educating an Asperger student in the least restrictive environment usually means that he will be in a regular classroom for a good part of the school day. I propose that it is unfair to the student, however, to place him in a regular classroom without several basic supports: an IEP, help in developing social skills, protection from bullying and teasing, trained teachers and paraprofessionals, positive behavior interventions, respect for his coping limitations and a 'safe place', a modified curriculum including homework modifications.;
Annette Wilkes
Our lives are full of contradictions since our often unusual abilities are marred by an innocence of social interaction leaving us literally alienated.
Misdiagnoses and counterproductive treatment of children who talk late are not uncommon. One professor of neurosciences says that at least three-quarters of the medical histories she reads contain at least one report that is completely off the mark.
Thomas Sowell
PLEASE don't try to make us 'normal'. We'd much rather be functional. It's hard to be functional when you have to spend all your time and energy focusing on making eye contact and not tapping your feet...
Jennifer McIlwee Myers, Aspie-at-Large
Perhaps the one common thread unifying all children diagnosed with Asperger syndrome is a fundamental inability to relate and profit from human relationships in a consistent and age appropriate fashion.
Richard Howlin
There is general agreement that children with Asperger syndrome have difficulties in social integration with their peers. Our current understanding of the nature of these difficulties is explained and specific strategies are described that are designed to encourage greater competence in the skills that are necessary to achieve effective social integration.
Tony Attwood
Don't take behaviours personally. Whenever possible, communicate on a literal level. Prepare the autistic person well in advance for any changes in their daily routine. Concentrate only on trying to change behaviours which are intolerable - don't worry about the behaviours which are simply odd. Whenever possible, avoid speaking to the autistic person in a loud voice. Don't expect the autistic person to respond to emotional pleas. Try and remain patient when the autistic person throws tantrums. When communicating fo the person, use a combination of visual and verbal cues. Don't assume that they are just ignoring you if they don't respond when you talk to themMaintain a sense of humour!
Rachel Kleverkamp
Usually with Asperger's, the boys get all the attention. However, one in five people with AS are women. My daughter and I are two of them.
Susan Shanfield
Director Steven Spielberg has been diagnosed with AS. Einstein probably had it. Researchers speculate that Mozart, Michelangelo and Andy Warhol may have had Asperger's traits. Bill Gates also seems to have some AS traits. "Most of the major advances in science and art have been made by people with Asperger's, from Mozart to Einstein," says Dr Tony Attwood, a Brisbane-based world authority on the disorder. He describes AS as a different way of thinking.
Fran Malloy
Psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen and his colleagues at Cambridge's Autism Research Centre have created the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, or AQ, as a measure of the extent of autistic traits in adults.
Check it out, you're sure to find one or another aggravating observation that's been flung at you...
Linda Newland
When I actually met some of these children, it became clear that they are each different and as complicated as anyone else.
Fred Volkmar, Ami Klin
Although Abraham was impaired by his developmental disorder, it is quite clear that the symptoms of Abraham's bipolar disorder led to severe disruption of functioning.
Jean A. Frazier et al
Alas, we are a nation fixated on "pathologizing" many complex demeanors -- ranging from the overanxious state of some adults to the behaviors of children who have more energy and shorter attention spans than is comfortable for their overworked teachers or parents. Sadly, our reflexive need for diagnosis is accompanied by an uncontrollable urge to treat with a torrent of potent medications. One can only wonder what future generations will conclude about our society's eccentric impulse to medically label and chemically alter those human behaviors that are temporally or culturally viewed as abnormal. Perhaps sometimes, as Osborne nods to Freud, a quirk is just a quirk.
Howard Markel
Although the exact mechanism for the differences in outcome remain to be determined, it appears that Asperger's disorder and autism represent parallel but potentially overlapping developmental trajectories.
Peter Szatmari et al
Having Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism is not all bad. There are special gifts, talents, and inclinations that come along with the challenges and make your child a very special, unique, and interesting person. Many children and teens with these conditions have excellent memories. They remember details of family trips, routes around their city, or spelling lists effortlessly. Many also excel in reading.
Sally Ozonoff et al
The significant divergence of neuropsychological profiles suggests that intervention strategies for AS (from HFA) should be of a different nature, directly addressing specific neuropsychological deficits and building on neuropsychological assets.
Ami Klin, Fred Volkmar, Sara Sparrow, Domenic Cicchetti, Byron Rourke
Michelangelo might have had it. So, too, may Einstein, Socrates and Jane Austen. All are claimed to have had Asperger's syndrome, a form of autism. What is it about this developmental disorder that can lead to genius?
British Broadcasting Corporation
General information brochure.
When AS was first identified, it was believed that it affected about one in every 1,00. It now has been shown that at least 1 in 500 can be properly identified with AS. In fact, the current numbers are showing closer to 1 in 200, or perhaps even less.
Central Oregon--Bend Redmond Asperger Syndrome Support
Individuals with AS can exhibit a variety of characteristics and the disorder can range from mild to severe. Persons with AS show marked deficiencies in social skills, have difficulties with transitions or changes and prefer sameness.
Barbara Kirby
In contrast to autism, there are no obvious delays in language or cognitive development, or in age-appropriate self-help skills and adaptive behaviors, though there are subtle impairments.
Center for Autism and Related Disabilities, University of Albany SUNY
People with Asperger syndrome find it difficult to read the signals which most of us take for granted. As a result they find it hard to communicate and interact with others.
National Autistic Society
It's not a mental condition... it is a neurological difference. Although the terms that describe it (syndrome, disorder, et cetera) have onerous connotations, it's more accurate to simply say that so affected individuals are different.
Frank Klein
Once labeled odd or even retarded, kids and adults with a mysterious, newly identified mental illness may have new hope.
Pauline Anderson
"The most important thing is that people with autism deserve the same rights as everyone else. I'd like people to know that if they have any form of disability, it does not mean that you can't set yourself high goals and reach them." ... (M)any people do not have autism as acutely as others... there is no known cure for the condition, so the focus must be on helping people manage and live with the anxieties. With the help of friends he has learned to do many things in life. One hurdle was going shopping. His fear was that he would forget to pay, get arrested and be taken away. He calls that a worry chain, a sequence of events which leads to the ultimate concern separation from loved ones, or being in a situation out of his control. His other fear was getting on the the Tube and getting across London. He can now use the whole Tube network, and his next objective is to get on the buses.
Jeremy Campbell, Bucks Free Press
People can become social outcasts for lots of reasons. Such as, people get labeled as geeks or nerds when they're smart or good at something. Doesn't seem fair, but that's reality. Have you ever heard of someone being a social disaster because of too much imagination? There is such a thing. It's called Asperger's syndrome. This form of high-functioning autism causes social problems that can't entirely be overcome, because the problem is not with the individual's personality. It's in the wiring of the brain. I should know. I suffer from this disorder.
Bryce Hubbard
My brothers' lives can only be authentically lived by ignoring societal norms and following without apology their own inclinations.
Barrett L. Dorko
Acta paedopsychiatrica, 35:136-145, 1968
Hans Asperger

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