Because so many experiences of AD/HD are 'internalized' for girls, we can only become fully aware of the issues with which they struggle by asking them directly.
Studies reveal that up to 80 percent of the time, ADD cannot be identified in the physician's office, presumably because the one-to-one social context with a (frequently) male authority figure mediates against the occurrence of symptoms.
A valuable tool to help determine if there are problems in the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, basal ganglia, temporal lobes or deep limbic system.
The other feature that strikes me as being at the heart of the ADD myth is the focus on disease and disability. Absent from this perspective is any mention of a child's potential or other manifestations of health, traits that are crucial in helping a child achieve success in life.
Our objective is to promote awareness to AD/HD and to provide information and as much free practical help as we can to those with the condition, both adults and children, their families in the UK and around the World via this website.
'The Happy, Healthy Lifestyle Magazine for People With ADHD'
Thom is the author of eight books on ADHD, and the creator of the 'Hunter in a Farmer's World' metaphor and of the Shadow Coaching program for helping people whose lives are touched by ADHD achieve success.
Patients need a clinician who is aware of what changes medicines can bring about in a patient's ability to function and who knows that ADHD is not a disorder in which one medicine or one dosing schedule suits all.
...shyness, unpopularity, vagueness, impulsiveness or loneliness are all likely to be explained in terms of disorder, at which point organs of intervention and regulation will be put in place, and normalisation will commence -- often pharmacologically.
Children with ADHD had a 2.5-fold increased risk for unprovoked seizures. The association was significant for ADHD predominantly inattentive type.
Timimi: The immaturity of children is a biological fact, but the ways in which this immaturity is understood and made meaningful is a fact of culture. Taylor: Hyperactivity is neither a social construct nor a genetic disease. The professional task is to understand how genetic and social influences interact, not to simplify into a polemic.
The Hunter/Farmer hypothesis maintains that self-esteem is not a drug used to pacify but a sword that can be used to fight off the evils of despondency and self-hatred, and to provide hope for ADHD children.
Upon completion of this activity, participants should be able to: 1. List at least 3 unique characteristics that differentiate adult from childhood ADHD. 2. Describe the 3 types of pharmacologic agents that are FDA approved for treatment of ADHD in adults and their mechanisms of action. 3. List 3 research findings regarding the possible role of antidepressant agents in adult ADHD.
4. Describe the role of cognitive behavioral therapy, counseling, and other nonpharmacologic approaches to the treatment of adults with ADHD.
Please rate yourself on each of the symptoms listed below using the following scale. If possible, to give us the most complete picture, have another person who knows you well (such as a spouse, lover or parent) rate you as well.
Although animals cannot be used to study complex human behaviour such as language, they do have similar basic functions. In fact, human disorders that have animal models are better understood than disorders that do not. ADHD is a heterogeneous disorder. The relatively simple nervous systems of rodent models have enabled identification of neurobiological changes that underlie certain aspects of ADHD behaviour. Several animal models of ADHD suggest that the dopaminergic system is functionally impaired. Some animal models have decreased extracellular dopamine concentrations and upregulated postsynaptic dopamine D1 receptors (DRD1) while others have increased extracellular dopamine concentrations. In the latter case, dopamine pathways are suggested to be hyperactive. However, stimulus-evoked release of dopamine is often decreased in these models, which is consistent with impaired dopamine transmission. It is possible that the behavioural characteristics of ADHD result from impaired dopamine modulation of neurotransmission in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. There is considerable evidence to suggest that the noradrenergic system is poorly controlled by hypofunctional a2-autoreceptors in some models, giving rise to inappropriately increased release of norepinephrine. Aspects of ADHD behaviour may result from an imbalance between increased noradrenergic and decreased dopaminergic regulation of neural circuits that involve the prefrontal cortex. Animal models of ADHD also suggest that neural circuits may be altered in the brains of children with ADHD. It is therefore of particular importance to study animal models of the disorder and not normal animals. Evidence obtained from animal models suggests that psychostimulants may not be acting on the dopamine transporter to produce the expected increase in extracellular dopamine concentration in ADHD. There is evidence to suggest that psychostimulants may decrease motor activity by increasing serotonin levels. In addition to providing unique insights into the neurobiology of ADHD, animal models are also being used to test new drugs that can be used to alleviate the symptoms of ADHD.
Although the differences between AS and ADHD can be noted and may lead to some different initial treatment approaches, eventually you must focus on your individual child's behavior and not a diagnosis.
Many children with autism display signs of hyperactivity and inattention when they start school. However, experts are very clear that as the child becomes older the apparent similarities between the two conditions will separate out.
An anthropological approach to ADHD is a bit more radical and involves "unplugging" the patient from the source of the disorder: the cultural matrix that triggers and maintains and defines them as diseased.
Although ADHD is the most studied mental disorder in children, it remains controversial because of challenges in establishing an accurate diagnosis. Stimulant medications with behavior modification remain the most effective, well-documented treatments.
The practices themselves should be part of an educational program based around three key components-classroom accommodations, behavior management, and individualized academic instruction.
Whereas a normal child will pay attention to what adults around him direct him to attend to, be it his schoolwork, his chores, or his performance of some task, the Attention Different child marches to his own drummer by fate and circumstance.
Approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are undergoing a major change as a result of information from studies on the genetics of ADHD and the use of new neuroimaging technologies. Moreover, pharmacogenomics, although still in its infancy, will provide a basis for much more sophisticated treatment strategies for ADHD, particularly once more information is available about the genetics of ADHD.
Behavior now considered inappropriate in a classroom may be related to behavior that once helped humans overcome their environment.
Chart comparing AS/ADHD: difficulty adjusting to changes, making transitions; inattention and distractibility; repetitive/annoying behaviors; responsiveness to reinforcement; response to rules; language and communication; social skills; cognitive markers.
The findings raise questions whether clinicians often adopt a hierarchical diagnostic model or do not consider the diagnosis of PDD's in the presence of longstanding behavioural problems or symptoms of hyperactivity-attention deficit.
In short, people have been, and will continue to be biologically different, and the differences which express themselves as social impairments remain very much the product of they age in which they are experienced.
Attention Deficit Disorder is neither a deficit nor a disorder, but a neurological difference. The mission of beyondadd.com is to educate adults and children with this difference. (Also provides services in the Austin TX area.)
In this article, an overview of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is presented from a biopsychosocial perspective, an attempt to circumvent disparate psychological and medical viewpoints and offer a broader, more integrated view of ADHD. Through a review of the current literature on ADHD treatment within the clinical field, as well as intervention strategies for ADHD within the educational field, the author proposes the self-regulated behavior paradigm. This person-centered paradigm uses both pathological and growth-oriented constructs of human nature. As such, it offers the advantage of being able to integrate pathologically oriented approaches with growth-oriented approaches within a single comprehensive intervention plan.The impact of this approach in helping people with ADHD is discussed.
Boring And Mundane Disorder or its non-euphemistic term, dull is characterized by a general lack of physical activity and an extreme lack of emotional passion.
Shows how to develop intimacy and mutual empowerment in ADD relationships.
Works to improve the lives of people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder through education, advocacy and support
A list of items that describe pupils. Rate each item that describes the pupil now or within the last week, in the morning and afternoon. To be filled out weekly.
An evaluation for ADHD is appropriate in the presence of difficulties of behavior and academic underachievement as well as the more commonly described core symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity.
It is one of the basic principles of developmental disabilities that multiple impairments are the rule rather than the exception. Evidence indicates that children with autism and children with ADHD both have consistent abnormalities in executive function.
It can be very difficult for someone who is distinctly different from the bulk of the populace to function within the context of a non-complementary culture.
The single biggest issue that I almost always see in adults (and teenagers) is poor self-esteem. They had a rough time for years and years, and then to top it off somebody came along and tried to tell them that they have a deficient brain.
On the one hand, parents and teachers feeling the pressure from the breakdown of adult authority discourse, feel they must act to control unruly children; on the other hand they feel inhibited from doing so for fear of the consequences now that people are aware that families can be ruined and careers destroyed should the state decide to intervene.
People in hunter/gatherer tribes live very different lives than we do, and therefore grow up to be very different persons from us. ADDers are damaged by growing up in our society, but not in hunting cultures
The influence of age on a selective attention task was studied in a sample of children with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The impact of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on selective attention was also investigated in the children with ADHD. Two age groups of children with ADHD and two age groups of control children were tested using a timed computer task. The task consisted of identifying visual target stimuli under various distracter conditions. Distracters varied on the basis of modality (i.e., visual, auditory, or both) and task relevance (i.e., meaningful or irrelevant). Reaction times and accuracy were measured. Children with ADHD were less efficient on the selective attention task than were children without ADHD, and older children were more efficient than younger children in both groups. Children without ADHD were influenced more by the nature of distracters than were children with ADHD. For children with ADHD, MPH improved performance overall.
Hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention are seen in children with AD/HD and Bipolar Disorder, but these two disorders are radically different in terms of the impact that they have on a child's life.
ADD is a made-up term to convince society to lower expectations of itself, to suppress the weak-minded into depression and to expand the business of insecurity and fear. Powerful people find it important to keep the majority of society convinced that they are stupid and unable. Keeping the masses insecure and unsure of their abilities is a good way to maintain peace, ensure the continuance of their power and profit economically.
In comparison with the predominantly inattentive type of ADHD, ADHD children with hyperactive-impulsive and combined type are more aggressive, impulsive, and unpopular and less often have comorbid internalizing disorders.
In-depth reading evaluations of these ADHD youngsters often reveal that rather than having an attention disorder, they are simply kinesthetic learners they need to engage in gross motor (large-muscle) activity to learn best.
There is one other factor I want to include, it's not the most researched or interesting but it's a factor none-the-less. It's boredom. I hear teachers talk all the time about this really bright kid who doesn't work up to their potential, doesn't turn their work in or doesn't seem to care. Sometimes, it's not ADHD, anxiety, LD, SID or other topics we talked about. There will be times when we run across kids who stopped trying because the work is too easy or uninteresting. So attention remains elusive. We can't assume that because a kid meets the criteria in the DSM for any one thing that this means it's the diagnosis. Attention, or the lack of it, is a co-occurring phenomenon with many possible diagnoses or sometimes none at all.
Using a root cause analysis framework, we identified system- and human-level factors that were perceived to impede communication and coordination of care for this population of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. These results suggest that better organizational policies that define provider responsibilities and accountability, support the coordination of care, bridge relationships between agencies, and provide additional education and resources may improve collaboration. Additional study is needed to assess the generalizability of these finding to other settings.
While norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) are certainly not the only neurotransmitters involved in ADHD, there is considerable evidence that these neurotransmitters play essential roles in attention and thinking. It may be an artifact to attempt to attribute unique functions to each neurotransmitter since they collaborate in facilitating many cognitive and affective functions. Both agents contribute to maintaining alertness, increasing focus, and sustaining thought, effort, and motivation. NE and DA are structurally very similar, differing only in the presence of a hydroxyl group; DA is a precursor to NE synthesis in the brain. However, distinctions in their sources of origin and their projections in the brain and differences in the behavioral effect of selective alternations suggest that these neurotransmitters have discrete complementary roles in the brain. Although these neurotransmitters affect related components of attention, they activate distinct receptors including specific subtypes of NE and DA, usually identified as D1, D2, and D3 receptors, etc.
Unlike such psychiatric disorders as depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar illness, which generally have their
onset in adulthood, there are a few psychiatric disorders in which onset in childhood is part of the diagnostic
criteria. Two of these childhood-onset conditions, autistic disorder (AD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD), illustrate both the behavioral heterogeneity that makes diagnosis a challenge and the potential
of genetic analysis in the study of normal and abnormal behaviors. AD, while rare, is probably the best-validated
psychiatric disorder in childhood (Rutter and Schopler 1988), whereas ADHD is the most common such disorder. These two conditions illustrate the diversity of behavioral phenotypes yet also exemplify some common
aspects of the childhood-onset conditions.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder in childhood and likely represents an extreme of normal behavior. ADHD significantly impacts learning in school-age children and leads to impaired functioning throughout the life span. There is strong evidence for a genetic etiology of the disorder, although putative alleles, principally in dopamine-related pathways suggested by candidate-gene studies, have very small effect sizes. We use affected-sib-pair analysis in 203 families to localize the first major susceptibility locus for ADHD to a 12-cM region on chromosome 16p13 (maximum LOD score 4.2; P=.000005), building upon an earlier genomewide scan of this disorder. The region overlaps that highlighted in three genome scans for autism, a disorder in which inattention and hyperactivity are common, and physically maps to a 7-Mb region on 16p13. These findings suggest that variations in a gene on 16p13 may contribute to common deficits found in both ADHD and autism.
Researchers now believe that a gene variation associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) first appeared 10,000 to 40,000 years ago and was probably a significant advantage to the early humans who had it.
Eleven Ways To Influence Your Attention Different Child and Help Him Be Successful.. Key success lessons I have learned from parents of AD children.
The goal of this activity is to provide clinicians with a review of the diagnostic and treatment approaches in hyperactivity disorders in children.
Suggested Diagnostic Criteria For Attention Deficit Disorder In Adults
These children need to have a lot of structure and routine, placing them in a class that is constantly having to use supply teachers it not very helpful as they will not be able to cope with the constant change to their routine.
We go forward with proud steps, ignoring those 'helpers' who would cling to our legs and scream (or say softly) 'you're sick!' while offering us quick fixes, radiation, or expensive 'cures.'
Stimulant medication is then presented as one component of a treatment plan that includes behavioral modification and environmental adjustments. With this approach 60-90% of children respond to therapy.
The International Multi-centre ADHD Gene (IMAGE) project exemplifies current collaborative research efforts on the genetics of ADHD. This European multi-site project is well placed to take advantage of the resources that are emerging following the sequencing of the human genome and the development of international resources for whole genome association analysis. As a result of IMAGE and other molecular genetic investigations of ADHD, we envisage a rapid increase in the number of identified genetic variants and the promise of identifying novel gene systems that we are not currently investigating, opening further doors in the study of gene functionality.
The present study was dedicated to investigate the influence of Methylphenidate (MPH) on cortical processing of children who were diagnosed with different subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). As all of the previous studies investigating power differences in different frequency bands have been using EEG, mostly with a relatively small number of electrodes our aim was to obtain new aspects using high density magnetoencephalography (MEG).... Main effects induced by medication were found in frontal regions. Theta band activity increased over the left hemisphere after MPH application. This finding contradicts EEG results of several groups who found lower levels of Theta power after MPH application. As relative Theta correlates with D2 test improvement we conclude that MEG provide complementary and therefore important new insights to ADHD.
What is being described in most cases now is normal behavioral variations of inattention and activity that, accompanied by low adaptability and/or cognitive disabilities, sometimes lead to dysfunction through dissonant environmental interactions.
By raising our girls in a more egalitarian fashion, without changing our larger social institutions, we may be just shifting their destined label from 'dreamer' to 'tomboy.'
My daily SI problems include an unusually high activity level (associated with ADHD), gross motor and some fine motor skills problems, over sensitivity to touch, hypersensitive smell and difficulties with certain colors and bright light or sunshine.
A brief overview of the most common medications used in the UK for the treatment of ADHD.
Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often perform poorly on tasks requiring sustained and systematic attention to stimuli for extended periods of time. The current paper tested the hypothesis that such deficits are the result of observable abnormalities in search behaviour (e.g., attention-onset, -duration and -sequencing), and therefore can be explained without reference to deficits in non-observable (i.e., cognitive) processes. Forty boys (20 ADHD and 20 controls) performed a computer-based complex discrimination task adapted from the Matching Familiar Figures Task with four different fixed search interval lengths (5-, 10-, 15- and 20-s). Children with ADHD identified fewer targets than controls (p < 0.001), initiated searches later, spent less time attending to stimuli, and searched in a less intensive and less systematic way (p's < 0.05). There were significant univariate associations between ADHD, task performance and search behaviour. However, there was no support for the hypothesis that abnormalities in search carried the effect of ADHD on performance. The pattern of results in fact suggested that abnormal attending during testing is a statistical marker, rather than a mediator, of ADHD performance deficits. The results confirm the importance of examining covert processes, as well as behavioural abnormalities when trying to understand the psychopathophyiology of ADHD.
Stay Calm; Change The Subject; Lots Of Praise; I Can Do Lots Of Things; Short And Sweet; Rewards; Sleep; Laugh; Embarrassing Or What; A Good Cuddle.
The present study clearly demonstrated that a substantial part of the risk in behaviourally disturbed children was attributable to hyperactivity per se, rather than to associated conduct problems.
A list of Natural Remedies various people have written to us about, claiming that these have been effective in the treatment of ADD/ADHD and behavioural disorder problems.
Although juvenile delinquents can present with a wide range of cognitive impairments, the deficits reported in the literature involve primarily verbal abilities and, to a lesser extent, executive functions.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 3% of school age children in the United States, and is the most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder in childhood. The clinical diagnoses of ADHD in the DSM-IV are based on subjective reports of developmentally inappropriate behaviors within three symptom domains-inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity-with the onset of symptoms before 7 years of age and functional impairment across at least two settings. ADHD may be associated with a number of comorbid psychiatric conditions as well as with impaired academic performance and family emotional distress. While it was previously though that the disorder remitted before or during adolescence, it has become well established that many patients will have an illness course that persists well into adulthood. Recent research in the fields of genetics, neuropsychology, neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and neuropharmacology have lead to possible hypotheses as to the origins of ADHD. Pharmacological treatment, particularly with stimulant drugs such as methylphenidate and D-amphetamine, is the most studied aspect of management, although other forms of treatment (e.g. behavior therapy, parent training) are important parts of good clinical care.
Modalities used successfully included environmental medicine, sensory integration/developmental optometry, and osteopathic manipulation. With this multi-disciplinary approach, my son gradually gained control of, and retrained, his nervous system.
The conservative political ethic of the day dovetailed perfectly with the ADHD movement as psychiatry located the source of the problem inside the child, instead of looking for answers in the environment.
U.S. advisers on Wednesday called for new information about psychiatric and heart risks on the labels of attention deficit drugs but stopped short of recommending the strongest possible warning, saying they did not want to frighten patients or parents from effective treatment. The panel of pediatric experts reviewed reports of heart problems and psychotic behavior such as hallucinations in children who took the medicines, which include Novartis AG's Ritalin and Shire Plc's Adderall.
This CME activity is based on transcripts and slides of presentations as delivered by the faculty at the "Piecing Together the ADHD Puzzle: Treatment Strategies for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): From Childhood to Adolescence and Through the Transition Years" symposium held at NAPNAP's Annual Conference in Washington, DC on Friday, March 31, 2006.
Clean up the child's diet. Determine whether allergies are a cause of the problem. Consider megavitamin therapy
SI Dysfunction is a neurological problem which affects behavior and learning. Not psychostimulants, but a good sensory diet may be a major component in treating the child with an attention problem.
A test was devised based on the symptoms exhibited in ADD/ADHD by a psychologist at the University of California.
While it is possible to say that 'no studies have shown that SPECT scans or the radiation levels used in them cause cancer,' it is a bit disingenuous: the only reason one could say that is that no such studies have ever been done.
ADHD has a biological basis; in other words, it's not just willful, disobedient behavior. These children can be successfully treated with medication and behavior therapy, lifting a great emotional stone from the backs of harassed parents.
These results indicate that underdiagnosis of ADHD in childhood may cause the emergence of greater internalization problems in adolescence.
ADHD affects 3-10% of children with up to 50% of these individuals having persisting symptoms into adulthood.
Please compare the student's behavior with that of his/her classmates. If possible, rate the student on three separate
A comprehensive approach towards coaching people with ADD can be summarized in four words: structure, support, skills and strategies.
Ratings of social competence were correlated with theory of mind and executive function ability for the typically developing controls but not for the children with ADHD.
Trait as it appears in the 'Disorder' view; how it appears in the 'Hunter' view: Opposite 'Farmer' traits:
Remember that a hyperactive child is an active child. These young people often possess great vitality-a valuable resource that society needs for its own renewal.
Bruce Pennington, Professor of Psychology at University of Denver, discusses dyslexia, ADHD and speech/language disorders.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. We raise the concern that ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and/or learning problems. Increasing numbers of children, especially boys, are diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulant medications according to a simplified approach. Methodical review of the literature, however, raised concerning issues. "Core" ADHD symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity are not unique to ADHD. Rates of "comorbid" psychiatric and learning problems, including depression and anxiety, range from 12 to 60%, with significant symptom overlap with ADHD, difficulties in diagnosis, and evidence-based treatment methods that do not include stimulant medications. No neuropsychologic test result is pathognomic for ADHD, and structural and functional neuroimaging studies have not identified a unique etiology for ADHD. No genetic marker has been consistently identified, and heritability studies are confounded by familial environmental factors. The validity of the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised has been seriously questioned, and parent and teacher "ratings" of school children are frequently discrepant, suggesting that use of subjective informant data via scale or interview does not form an objective basis for diagnosis of ADHD. Empiric diagnostic trials of stimulant medication that produce a behavioral response have been shown not to distinguish between children with and without "ADHD." In summary, the working dogma that ADHD is a disease or neurobehavioral condition does not at this time hold up to scrutiny of evidence. Thorough evaluation of symptomatic children should be individualized, and include assessment of educational, psychologic, psychiatric, and family needs.
ADHD is caused by differences in neurotransmitter patterns in certain parts of the brain. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that make it possible for nerve impulses to travel from one nerve cell to another, and therefore play an essential role in the functioning of the brain. The brain performs a vast range of tasks or functions, allowing us, for instance, to see, hear, think, speak and move. Each function is performed by a different part of the brain. In individuals with ADHD there are lower than normal levels of certain neurotransmitters (especially dopamine) in the regions of the brain that are responsible for regulating behaviour and attention.
A distressing trend is emerging, among a group I refer to as Neo-Darwinists, who imply or state flat-out that people with ADHD are genetically dysfunctional, less evolved than the rest of us, and thus have nothing to contribute to our culture whatsoever.
The style of instruction our schools use - including most of our private schools - is so dissonant with the style of learning these children have that they can't succeed. It's a set-up.